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Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition that typically affects the face, causing redness, flushing, and sometimes small red bumps or pustules. It often begins in middle age and is more common in fair-skinned individuals. The exact cause of rosacea is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as sun exposure, alcohol consumption, and certain foods. While there is no cure for rosacea, it can be managed through a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and topical treatments, and it is important to avoid triggers that can exacerbate the condition.

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Rosacea is a chronic skin condition that typically affects the face, causing redness, pimples, and visible blood vessels. There is no single test that can diagnose rosacea, and diagnosis is usually based on a combination of the patient’s medical history, symptoms, and physical examination.

During a physical examination, a healthcare provider will typically look for signs of rosacea, such as facial redness, swollen bumps or pimples, and visible blood vessels. They may also ask about any symptoms the patient is experiencing, such as burning or stinging sensations, and whether there are any triggers that seem to make the symptoms worse, such as exposure to sunlight, alcohol, or spicy foods.

In some cases, a healthcare provider may perform additional tests, such as a skin biopsy, to rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms. They may also ask the patient to keep a diary of their symptoms and triggers to help identify patterns that can aid in diagnosis and treatment.

There is no cure for rosacea, but treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent flare-ups. Treatment options may include topical or oral medications to reduce inflammation, laser therapy to reduce visible blood vessels, and lifestyle changes to avoid triggers that can worsen symptoms.

Lifestyle Changes

Rosacea is a chronic skin condition that causes facial redness, flushing, and sometimes acne-like breakouts. Here are some lifestyle changes that may help improve the condition:

Protect your skin from the sun: Exposure to sunlight can worsen rosacea symptoms, so it’s important to use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher daily. Wear a hat and seek shade when possible.

Avoid triggers: Certain foods, beverages, and activities can trigger rosacea symptoms, including spicy foods, alcohol, hot beverages, and extreme temperatures. Keep a diary to identify your triggers and avoid them.

Be gentle with your skin: Use gentle cleansers and avoid harsh scrubs or exfoliants that can irritate your skin. Pat your skin dry with a soft towel instead of rubbing it vigorously.

Moisturize regularly: Use a gentle, fragrance-free moisturizer to keep your skin hydrated and to help reduce redness.

Manage stress: Stress can trigger rosacea symptoms, so it’s important to find ways to manage stress, such as practicing relaxation techniques like yoga or meditation.

Exercise regularly: Regular exercise can help improve circulation and reduce stress, which can benefit rosacea. However, be sure to avoid activities that may cause excessive sweating or overheating.

Quit smoking: Smoking can worsen rosacea symptoms and contribute to skin aging. If you smoke, talk to your doctor about strategies to quit.

Talk to your doctor: If your rosacea is severe or does not improve with lifestyle changes, talk to your doctor about other treatment options, such as prescription medications or laser therapy.


Risk Factors

Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects the face, particularly the cheeks, nose, chin, and forehead. While the exact cause of rosacea is not known, several risk factors may increase the likelihood of developing the condition. Some of the main risk factors of rosacea include:

Age: Rosacea is most common in people over the age of 30, with the risk increasing as people age.

Gender: Women are more likely than men to develop rosacea, although men with rosacea may experience more severe symptoms.

Family history: A family history of rosacea increases the risk of developing the condition.

Skin tone: Rosacea is more common in people with fair skin, particularly those of Celtic or Scandinavian descent.

Sun exposure: Exposure to sunlight can trigger or worsen rosacea symptoms.

Certain medical conditions: Rosacea has been linked to other medical conditions, such as autoimmune diseases and gastrointestinal disorders.

Certain medications: Some medications, such as topical steroids, may worsen rosacea symptoms.

Certain lifestyle factors: Certain lifestyle factors, such as excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and stress, may increase the risk of developing rosacea or trigger flare-ups.

While these risk factors may increase the likelihood of developing rosacea, they do not guarantee that a person will develop the condition.

Signs and Symptoms

Rosacea is a chronic skin condition that typically affects the face, causing redness, flushing, and sometimes acne-like breakouts. The signs and symptoms of rosacea can vary in severity and may include:

Facial redness: Persistent redness on the central portion of the face, including the cheeks, nose, forehead, and chin.

Flushing: A sudden and temporary increase in facial redness and warmth.

Visible blood vessels: Small blood vessels that are visible on the skin.

Swollen, red bumps: Pimples, which can be mistaken for acne, on the face.

Eye problems: Irritated, dry, and bloodshot eyes or swollen eyelids.

Burning or stinging: Sensations of burning, stinging, or itching on the face.

Thickened skin: Thickened and rough skin, particularly on the nose, due to excess tissue.

Dry or rough skin: Dry, rough, and scaly patches on the face.

The symptoms of rosacea can come and go, and may be triggered by certain factors, such as exposure to sunlight, heat, cold, wind, and stress. In severe cases, rosacea can also cause emotional distress and negatively impact a person’s quality of life.


The treatment of rosacea depends on the severity and type of symptoms that a person experiences. While there is no cure for rosacea, there are several treatments available that can help manage and reduce the symptoms of the condition. Some of the treatment options include:

Topical medications: Prescription creams, gels, and lotions containing antibiotics, azelaic acid, or other ingredients can help reduce inflammation, redness, and acne-like breakouts.

Oral medications: Antibiotics, such as doxycycline and minocycline, may be prescribed to help reduce inflammation and redness.

Laser and light therapies: Intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy and other light-based treatments can help reduce redness, visible blood vessels, and acne-like breakouts.

Lifestyle changes: Avoiding triggers, such as sunlight, hot and spicy foods, and alcohol, and managing stress can help reduce symptoms.

Skincare: Using gentle, fragrance-free skincare products and avoiding harsh scrubs and exfoliants can help reduce irritation and redness.

Eye drops: Prescription eye drops can help relieve eye symptoms, such as redness, dryness, and irritation.

Who is Affected?

Rosacea is a common skin condition that affects an estimated 16 million people in the United States alone, and it can occur in people of all ages and skin types. However, there are certain populations that are more likely to develop rosacea than others.

While rosacea can affect anyone, it is most commonly seen in:

Women: Rosacea is more common in women than men, especially during menopause.

People with fair skin: Those with fair skin and light coloured eyes are more susceptible to rosacea.

Adults between the ages of 30 and 50: Rosacea most often develops in middle-aged adults.

Those with a family history of rosacea: If a person has a family history of rosacea, they are more likely to develop the condition.

Individuals with certain medical conditions: Some people with autoimmune diseases or gastrointestinal disorders may be more likely to develop rosacea.

Smokers: Smoking cigarettes is associated with an increased risk of developing rosacea.