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Hypothyroidism is a medical condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, causing symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, and depression. It can be caused by various factors, including autoimmune disease, thyroid surgery, and iodine deficiency, and is typically treated with synthetic thyroid hormones.

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Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is under-active, resulting in a decreased production of thyroid hormones. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is usually made by measuring the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood.

The following are the most common diagnostic tests for hypothyroidism:

TSH test: This is the most common test used to diagnose hypothyroidism. It measures the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood. When thyroid hormone levels are low, the pituitary gland releases more TSH to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more thyroid hormones. Therefore, high TSH levels are an indication of hypothyroidism.

Free T4 test: This test measures the level of free thyroxine (T4), the main thyroid hormone produced by the thyroid gland. Low levels of free T4 can indicate hypothyroidism.

Total T4 test: This test measures the total level of thyroxine in the blood, including both free and bound forms of T4. Low total T4 levels may indicate hypothyroidism.

T3 test: This test measures the level of triiodothyronine (T3), another thyroid hormone. Low T3 levels can be an indication of hypothyroidism, although this is less common than low T4 levels.

If the results of these tests indicate hypothyroidism, further tests may be ordered to determine the underlying cause, such as an autoimmune disorder or iodine deficiency. A physical examination and medical history may also be taken into account during the diagnosis.

Lifestyle Changes

Lifestyle changes can help manage hypothyroidism and improve overall health. Here are some lifestyle changes you can make:

Eat a balanced diet: A diet that includes a variety of nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, lean protein, and whole grains can help support thyroid health.

Exercise regularly: Regular exercise can help boost metabolism and improve overall health. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise most days of the week.

Get enough sleep: Aim for 7-8 hours of sleep per night to help regulate hormones and support overall health.

Manage stress: Stress can affect the thyroid gland and hormone levels, so finding ways to manage stress such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing exercises can be beneficial.

Avoid smoking: Smoking can damage the thyroid gland and worsen hypothyroidism symptoms.

Limit alcohol intake: Alcohol can interfere with the thyroid gland’s ability to produce hormones, so it’s best to limit intake.

Take medication as prescribed: If you are taking thyroid hormone replacement medication, it’s important to take it as prescribed by your healthcare provider.

It’s important to talk to your healthcare provider before making any significant lifestyle changes to manage hypothyroidism.

Risk Factors

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Some of the risk factors associated with hypothyroidism include:

Age: The risk of hypothyroidism increases with age, especially in women over the age of 60.

Gender: Women are more likely to develop hypothyroidism than men.

Family history: If a close family member has hypothyroidism, you may be at increased risk.

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus, increase the risk of developing hypothyroidism.

Radiation therapy: Previous radiation therapy to the neck or upper chest increases the risk of hypothyroidism.

Surgery: Surgery to remove the thyroid gland can result in hypothyroidism if not enough thyroid hormone is produced.

Medications: Certain medications, such as lithium, interferon-alpha, and amiodarone, can cause hypothyroidism as a side effect.

Iodine deficiency: A lack of iodine in the diet can result in hypothyroidism, although this is rare in developed countries where iodine is added to salt.

Signs and Symptoms

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. The signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism can vary from person to person, and may develop gradually over time. Some common signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism include:

Fatigue and weakness: Feeling tired and weak, even with sufficient rest and sleep.

Weight gain: Difficulty losing weight, or weight gain despite no changes in diet or activity levels.

Cold intolerance: Feeling cold more easily than usual.

Constipation: Difficulty passing stool.

Dry skin and hair: Skin may become dry and itchy, and hair may become dry and brittle.

Depression: Feeling sad, hopeless, or unmotivated.

Muscle aches and stiffness: Feeling achy and stiff, especially in the morning.

Joint pain: Pain and stiffness in the joints.

Irregular periods: Women with hypothyroidism may experience heavy or irregular periods.

Decreased libido: Decreased interest in sex.

Memory problems: Difficulty concentrating and remembering things.

Hypothyroidism can be diagnosed with a simple blood test, and treatment with thyroid hormone replacement medication can improve symptoms and prevent complications.


The most common treatment for hypothyroidism is thyroid hormone replacement therapy. This involves taking a synthetic version of the thyroid hormone, usually in the form of a daily pill. The medication is used to replace the hormone that the thyroid gland is not producing in sufficient amounts. The type and dosage of medication prescribed will depend on the severity of the hypothyroidism, as well as other factors such as age and weight.

It’s important to take thyroid hormone replacement medication as prescribed by your healthcare provider, and to have regular follow-up appointments to monitor thyroid function and adjust medication dosage as needed.

In addition to medication, lifestyle changes such as eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, getting enough sleep, and managing stress can also help manage hypothyroidism and improve overall health.

Who is Affected?

Hypothyroidism can affect people of all ages and genders, although it is more common in women than in men. The condition is also more common in people over the age of 60. Hypothyroidism can be caused by a variety of factors, including autoimmune diseases, radiation therapy, and certain medications. It can also occur as a result of thyroid gland dysfunction or removal, iodine deficiency, or congenital hypothyroidism (present at birth).

Individuals with a family history of hypothyroidism or other thyroid disorders may be at higher risk of developing the condition. In addition, certain autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and celiac disease are also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism.

Overall, hypothyroidism is a common condition, and it’s important to talk to your healthcare provider if you experience any signs or symptoms. A simple blood test can diagnose hypothyroidism, and treatment with thyroid hormone replacement medication can help manage symptoms and prevent complications.